How The ChatGPT Watermark Functions And Why It Might Be Defeated

Posted by

OpenAI’s ChatGPT introduced a way to immediately develop content but plans to introduce a watermarking function to make it simple to detect are making some individuals anxious. This is how ChatGPT watermarking works and why there may be a method to defeat it.

ChatGPT is an incredible tool that online publishers, affiliates and SEOs all at once like and fear.

Some online marketers love it since they’re finding new methods to use it to create material briefs, details and complicated articles.

Online publishers are afraid of the possibility of AI material flooding the search engine result, supplanting specialist articles written by human beings.

Subsequently, news of a watermarking function that opens detection of ChatGPT-authored content is likewise expected with stress and anxiety and hope.

Cryptographic Watermark

A watermark is a semi-transparent mark (a logo design or text) that is ingrained onto an image. The watermark signals who is the original author of the work.

It’s mainly seen in photographs and significantly in videos.

Watermarking text in ChatGPT includes cryptography in the form of embedding a pattern of words, letters and punctiation in the kind of a secret code.

Scott Aaronson and ChatGPT Watermarking

An influential computer system scientist called Scott Aaronson was hired by OpenAI in June 2022 to work on AI Safety and Alignment.

AI Security is a research study field concerned with studying ways that AI might posture a harm to human beings and producing ways to prevent that sort of unfavorable interruption.

The Distill clinical journal, including authors connected with OpenAI, defines AI Safety like this:

“The objective of long-term expert system (AI) safety is to ensure that advanced AI systems are dependably aligned with human values– that they reliably do things that people desire them to do.”

AI Positioning is the artificial intelligence field concerned with ensuring that the AI is aligned with the designated goals.

A big language model (LLM) like ChatGPT can be used in such a way that might go contrary to the goals of AI Positioning as defined by OpenAI, which is to develop AI that advantages humankind.

Accordingly, the reason for watermarking is to avoid the abuse of AI in a way that damages humankind.

Aaronson described the reason for watermarking ChatGPT output:

“This could be useful for preventing scholastic plagiarism, obviously, however likewise, for instance, mass generation of propaganda …”

How Does ChatGPT Watermarking Work?

ChatGPT watermarking is a system that embeds an analytical pattern, a code, into the options of words and even punctuation marks.

Content developed by expert system is created with a relatively predictable pattern of word option.

The words written by human beings and AI follow a statistical pattern.

Altering the pattern of the words used in created material is a method to “watermark” the text to make it simple for a system to identify if it was the product of an AI text generator.

The technique that makes AI material watermarking undetectable is that the circulation of words still have a random look similar to regular AI created text.

This is described as a pseudorandom distribution of words.

Pseudorandomness is a statistically random series of words or numbers that are not really random.

ChatGPT watermarking is not presently in use. Nevertheless Scott Aaronson at OpenAI is on record mentioning that it is planned.

Today ChatGPT is in previews, which enables OpenAI to discover “misalignment” through real-world use.

Presumably watermarking may be presented in a last version of ChatGPT or sooner than that.

Scott Aaronson wrote about how watermarking works:

“My primary project so far has actually been a tool for statistically watermarking the outputs of a text model like GPT.

Generally, whenever GPT creates some long text, we want there to be an otherwise undetectable secret signal in its options of words, which you can use to show later that, yes, this originated from GPT.”

Aaronson described further how ChatGPT watermarking works. However first, it is necessary to comprehend the idea of tokenization.

Tokenization is a step that takes place in natural language processing where the maker takes the words in a file and breaks them down into semantic systems like words and sentences.

Tokenization changes text into a structured type that can be utilized in machine learning.

The process of text generation is the machine thinking which token comes next based on the previous token.

This is done with a mathematical function that identifies the probability of what the next token will be, what’s called a probability distribution.

What word is next is predicted but it’s random.

The watermarking itself is what Aaron describes as pseudorandom, because there’s a mathematical reason for a specific word or punctuation mark to be there but it is still statistically random.

Here is the technical description of GPT watermarking:

“For GPT, every input and output is a string of tokens, which could be words but likewise punctuation marks, parts of words, or more– there have to do with 100,000 tokens in overall.

At its core, GPT is constantly generating a probability circulation over the next token to generate, conditional on the string of previous tokens.

After the neural net produces the circulation, the OpenAI server then really samples a token according to that distribution– or some modified version of the distribution, depending upon a criterion called ‘temperature level.’

As long as the temperature level is nonzero, however, there will generally be some randomness in the option of the next token: you might run over and over with the exact same prompt, and get a various completion (i.e., string of output tokens) each time.

So then to watermark, instead of picking the next token randomly, the idea will be to pick it pseudorandomly, using a cryptographic pseudorandom function, whose secret is understood just to OpenAI.”

The watermark looks totally natural to those checking out the text since the option of words is simulating the randomness of all the other words.

But that randomness contains a bias that can just be discovered by someone with the secret to translate it.

This is the technical explanation:

“To highlight, in the special case that GPT had a bunch of possible tokens that it evaluated similarly probable, you might just pick whichever token maximized g. The option would look consistently random to someone who didn’t know the key, however somebody who did know the secret might later on sum g over all n-grams and see that it was anomalously big.”

Watermarking is a Privacy-first Option

I’ve seen conversations on social networks where some people recommended that OpenAI could keep a record of every output it produces and use that for detection.

Scott Aaronson validates that OpenAI might do that but that doing so presents a privacy concern. The possible exception is for law enforcement scenario, which he didn’t elaborate on.

How to Detect ChatGPT or GPT Watermarking

Something intriguing that appears to not be popular yet is that Scott Aaronson noted that there is a way to beat the watermarking.

He didn’t say it’s possible to beat the watermarking, he stated that it can be beat.

“Now, this can all be defeated with enough effort.

For example, if you used another AI to paraphrase GPT’s output– well fine, we’re not going to be able to discover that.”

It seems like the watermarking can be defeated, a minimum of in from November when the above declarations were made.

There is no sign that the watermarking is currently in use. But when it does enter use, it might be unknown if this loophole was closed.


Read Scott Aaronson’s post here.

Featured image by Best SMM Panel/RealPeopleStudio